Desk research is the presentation of a formal letter that follows a proven methodology. Consists primarily of selective presentation of what experts have said or written about a particular topic.
Also, you can make the possible connection of ideas between various authors and ideas of the researcher. Its preparation requires it to collect, interpret, evaluate and report data and ideas impartially, honestly and clearly.
I. Types of documentary research
There are two types of documentary research: argumentative and informative.
A. Argumentative (exploratory).
This writing tries to prove that something is right or wrong, desirable or undesirable and requiring solution. Its consequences and alternative solutions are discussed, and it reaches a critical conclusion after evaluating the data investigated.
Once the theme has been selected, the next step is to generate basic questions about it that can guide the collection of meaningful information to develop research. There is also the requirement that the investigator determines party or take a personal stance on a controversial issue, which seeks to support or prove your writing.
B. Informational (expository).
This paper is an overview of the relevant information from various reliable sources on a specific topic, without trying to approve or object to any idea or position.
All information presented is based on what has been found in the sources. The student contribution is to analyze this information and select what is relevant to their research. Finally, the student needs to organize the information to cover the topic, synthesize ideas and then present them in a final report that, in turn, is fluid and written.
All written work prepared rigorously, has as a starting point, according to Ballesteros, M. (2002.3) the application of a system of principles and rules relating to practical documentary research techniques that provide support elements and affect the structure, organization, and consistency of the written material.
There are great diversity and different levels of complexity in the development of research. We include reports, articles, reports, essays, projects, dissertations, special grade papers, technical reports, scientific papers, dissertations, etc. Upgrades jobs.
Whatever the level of research, it is necessary to know and implement all the methods of the documentary research, related to the different methodologies that can be applied in the preparation of any written work.
It is a set of logical, gradual, hierarchical propositions to facilitate and improve the intellectual exercise and creativity of the human mind in any branch of knowledge.The methodology is inextricably linked to the acquisition of knowledge, and every kind of knowledge is itself a particular method appropriate to their nature.
When was talking about research, should be pressed in an action or set of measures that verbs in question, discover, explore, in the broadest sense of the word, play a major role. Through the research is to find out the truth about something, find out what is ignored. Hence Alfonso I. (1995, 24) states that research is often defined as an activity or as a forward problem-solving process, or, at least, the treatment of problems.
Research is a process that, by applying the scientific method seeks to obtain relevant and reliable (faith and credit worthy) information, to understand, verify, correct or apply knowledge. For some results clearly and accurately is necessary to use some research.
The research activity is effective leads through a series of elements that make the subject accessible to knowledge and whose wise choice application will depend largely on the success of the research work.
The research is based on the scientific method, and this method is the systematic study of nature that includes observation techniques, rules for reasoning and prediction, the planned experimental ideas and ways of communicating the experimental and theoretical results.
Furthermore, research has some features that help the researcher to effectively governed therein. Research is so compact that has forms, elements, processes, different types, among others. (Murillo Hernandez, WJ (s / f) Web page online)
According to Umberto Eco (1982), scientific research is when you meet the following requirements:
- Research dealt with a recognizable and defined, so the other object also recognizes that.
- Research has to say about this item things that have not yet been said or browse, with a different view, things have already been stated.
- Research has to be useful to others.
- Research should provide elements for verification and refutation of the hypothesis presented, and thus provide the necessary elements for public monitoring.
For the application of the scientific method is important prior knowledge of the material to be studied, as well, needs to be complemented with methods adapted to the special characteristics of each problem.
The application of the scientific method, according to how you intend to raise research and creative ability of the researcher, one can speak of different modes, without a rigorous classification of the different types of research.
If we consider how to collect information to answer the problems posed Alfonzo (1995), three(3) types:
1. Documentary Research, which uses indirect observation as a means to collect data that are necessary, and for that focuses on the study of documents. Field research, collect data directly, i.e., the place where the events occur to consider experimental research, also collects information directly, “but deliberately manipulating the phenomena under study. (P.28)
They can also be classified according to the purpose intended with this work. It’s the researcher who seeks to publicize the results of their work to the scientific community; which submits a report to the institution or undertaking. Equally, there are those who conduct research and present papers for an academic degree or passing grades in a university program.
Meanwhile, Beatriz Carrera, Carrera Liduvina Neveska, and Rodríguez (2002) suggest two ways in the research: The research literature documentary and scientific research.
2. The literature on documentary research is a careful and orderly description of published knowledge, followed by an interpretation (p. 2) In this type of research problems looking to expand and deepen the knowledge having to do with the topic at hand are studied. The resources used are prerequisites and information disseminated through print, broadcast and electronic media jobs.
3. Scientific research is the direct observation of reality. An intensive study of the current status and interaction with the environment of the individual, group or community … It is a systematic analysis of problems in reality, in order either to define, evaluate, understand its nature and fundamental factors explain its causes and predict their occurrence or effects, using methods characteristic of any known paradigms or approaches to research or development. (P.3)
Following Carlos Sabino (2006), we will make a brief description of what is meant by each of the most common names, making me know that there may be variations, as stipulated by each institution or country.
1. Report of Investigation.
It’s A generic term used to indicate that writing is an exhibition and on scientific inquiry. Not allowed to make any judgment on it, on their type or size, or the purposes for which it is routed. It may be a simple discussion paper to the results obtained at a certain stage of an investigation, the final report on the same or the product of a team appear. You can also just have an informative purpose or, conversely, a basis for further decision-making in any field of activity concerned.
2. Role work:
It is another generic name which describes that the letter is not a definitive material but an editable drawing submitted for discussion. Often used in research teams work or collegial bodies of any kind. Also commonly used as a means to show more advanced tutors or researchers, the progress in the research process. Its content is not binding.
Monograph is a job that has the particularity to be about a single, well-defined and precise topic, where the depth is the most important issue is the extension. Usually, the monograph is the result of a literature review, no field, although not limiting.
It is common for the final works of university students are evaluated using case studies that address the academic issues. Many of the articles published in scientific journals are product monographs. These are jobs where good organization and use of a well-structured critical apparatus is valued.
It is a short work that is usually intended for publication in journals. It must be written very clearly and just enough to avoid unnecessary digressions and to communicate what you want. Many times items are scientists or work product larger.
A written communication that appears before an event, seminar, congress, symposium, etc.. Organizers of the event are what make the guidelines to follow in the presentation of the work. Usually brief, case or not presented as viewed and for collective discussion of the attendees work.
Its area is between ten and thirty double-spaced pages. The wording of the presentation should be clear and attractive, can have visual aids and should be committed to the interests of the audience to whom it is addressed.
Works are short or medium length, submitted for appropriate academic evaluation. From the pedagogical point of view, fulfills the same role of monographs. Their specific characteristics depend on the proper allocation of departments, chairs and subject teachers in institutions of higher order.
A written work that will be exhibited in universities and colleges to obtain the corresponding title. In the domain of the subject of study and the provision of new and solid knowledge to prove herself. Must be a serious and well thought out work.
It is the conclusion of several years of study and where the fitness of applicants in the field of research is demonstrated; therefore, they are relatively long, original and creative, with methodological rigor and bibliographic scientific papers. These features are fully given in the case of higher education, usually postgraduate, mainly regarding doctorates. As for other graduate and undergraduate degrees or the demands they are minor.
8. Working grade or degree thesis:
Complies with the same academic function of the thesis, but the methodological requirements and these show creativity. Can be accepted jobs that are not original, do not contribute new knowledge, and methodological rigor usually not as strict. These jobs tend to be relatively large, larger than the monographs or dissertations, developing ideas in its pages researched work and personal opinions.
9. Labour ascent:
Generally, universities have systems of promotion for academic staff. Addition to other requirements. This is achieved through research that enables teachers to demonstrate their knowledge in areas related to their academic performance areas. Are works of some significance, methodological rigor and they serve as a contribution to the development of the sciences, humanities and the arts. These jobs vary according to established institutional rules.
10. Ante-Project 10 and Project Research:
where there are jobs results, analysis and conclusions are presented, but the main lines of research are outlined to develop in the future. Every project must follow certain guidelines for processing, where the scheme is to improve importantly. Expressed therein: The problem of Research, background, objectives, justification of research, theoretical framework, methodological framework, and references.
Research ideas originate. These are the first approximation to the reality of what is there to investigate.